Thursday, August 27, 2020
string(35) began the Gram Stain procedure. The target of these Ã¢â¬Å"unknownÃ¢â¬ tests was to take a blended culture, which contains two obscure species, and recognize those species through a progression of tests. The gathering was educated that one animal groups regarding microscopic organisms would be a gram-negative bacillus and the other would be a gram positive coccus. The tests to be led run from streak plate disengagement to biochemical tests. We will compose a custom exposition test on Obscure Paper or then again any comparative point just for you Request Now Each test to be directed was examined and settled upon by all gathering individuals. The consequences of each test were broke down by the gathering and prompted choice of the following test that would additionally limit the conceivable personality of the obscure species. On September 16, 2010, our gathering was given a blended culture where we were to distinguish two life forms inside the blend, by running a few biochemical tests. On this day our goal was to set up the example of the blended culture into discrete settlements. Every individual from our gathering at that point directed a streak plate and we would later pick the best plate of separated settlements. To play out a streak plate, aseptic strategy was required. We had our blended culture as a stock accordingly our immunizing instrument would be a circle. We likewise required our agar plates each set apart into four quadrants and a Bunsen burner. We at that point continued to move the blended culture to the plates aseptically. In anticipation of the exchange of the blend culture to a plate we put the container of stock in our non-predominant hand. The circle was disinfected by setting it into the fire of the Bunsen burner until the whole wire got super hot, Ã¢â¬Å"red is deadÃ¢â¬ . The cylinder was uncapped confronting the top descending alongside the vaccinated circle in the prevailing hand. We at that point went the cylinder through the fire of the Bunsen burner quickly to consume off any taints that might be available at the opening of the cylinder. The immunized circle was then embedded into the stock of the blended culture to get the life forms to be moved to the plate. The cylinder was then passed however the Bunsen burner once more, topped, and set aside. With the cleaned circle containing the creature we continued to move the life form to the plate of quadrant I in a crisscross development. We then re-flared the circle till red and cooled the instrument to the side of quadrant II. At that point from quadrant I we made four lines crossing into quadrant II. We re-blazed the circle till red and afterward cooled the instrument again to the side of quadrant III. From quadrant II we made four lines crossing into quadrant III. From quadrant III we kept creation four additional lines crossing into quadrant IV. We immunized our circle again, liberating the instrument of any living being by re-blazing till red. When we each finished a streak plate, the plates where taped and set apart with the date, initials, and gathering number. On September 23, 2010, we got our plates produced using September 16. We recognized discrete settlements into two life forms that we named yellow and beige. The yellow creature was an undeniable yellow pigmentation, moderate in size, whole, round, raised province and the beige was a grayish pigmentation, little, whole, roundabout, umbonate state. We next picked the best agent province of every life form to be move to a supplement agar incline. Again we aseptically moved the living beings, yellow and beige, into singular agar inclines. Our instrument that we utilized was a circle alongside two inclination tubes and a Bunsen burner. With our chose plate prepared and accessible, the inclination at all commanded hand, we vaccinated the circle till red, uncapped the cylinder, flared the cylinders, got the yellow life form from the plate, and moved it to the inclination in a crisscross movement. We then re-flared the cylinder, topped the test tube, and blazed the circle. At that point we continued with similar systems for the beige living being. The reason for moving the life forms was to assess the plenitude of development, pigmentation, optical attributes, structure (not applied because of the utilization of a crisscross rather then a straight line), and consistency. On October 7, 2010 our third day of our UnknownÃ¢â¬â¢s venture we led a Gram stain methodology. From last weekÃ¢â¬â¢s test, we accomplished unadulterated social qualities from the two inclinations we made. The development we saw on the agar incline that contained the yellow example was a delicate, smooth, yellow development. The development we saw on the beige example was a meager, even, beige development. Both social qualities were accomplished in the suitable classes. The classifications we were searching for contained plenitude of development, pigmentation, optical qualities, and consistency. Today we will plan two bacterial smears from every example and Gram recoloring them. The explanation we are directing this test is to separate between two guideline gatherings, gram positive and gram negative and to additionally know whether an unadulterated culture from the two living beings was accomplished. This is significant for order and separation of microorganisms. The Gram stain response will assist us with differentiating of the concoction structure of bacterial cell dividers. The Gram stain technique utilizes four unique reagents, for example, gem violet, gramÃ¢â¬â¢s iodine, ethyl liquor, and safranin. Before the Gram stain is performed we should make two bacterial smears of the two examples. We put one circle of refined water on a spotless slide aseptically. He moved the example from the agar incline that contained the yellow development and set it on the slide with the water and tenderly combined it in a round movement roughly the size of a nickel. He let the smear air dry for one moment and tenderly warmth fixed it by rapidly going the slide through the fire 3-5 times with a garments pin. The equivalent aseptic exchange and Gram stain strategy was performed on the agar incline that contained the beige example. After we effectively played out the bacterial smear, we began the Gram Stain technique. You read Obscure Paper in classification Papers The initial phase in the Gram stain system is flooding the bacterial smear with gem violet and letting it sit for one moment. After the gem violet has set we washed the reagent off with refined water. Next, we overflowed the bacterial smear with GramÃ¢â¬â¢s Iodine for one moment. After we let the GramÃ¢â¬â¢s Iodine set we washed the GramÃ¢â¬â¢s Iodine off of the slide tenderly with refined water. The subsequent stage in the Gram stain system contained 95% Ethyl liquor. Drop by drop we let the liquor run onto the stain until the shade of the stain was practically clear. After this progression we washed off the liquor with refined water by and by. The following stage in finishing the Gram stain technique is counterstaining the smear with safranin for 45 seconds. When the counterstain has set we washed the stain tenderly one final time with refined water and utilized bibulous paper to smear dry the stain. After we finished the Gram stain technique we took a gander at both Gram stainÃ¢â¬â¢s under a light magnifying lens at 100X with drenching oil. The means in setting up the light magnifying instrument are straightforward. First we connected the magnifying lens and turned it on, second we ensured the light force has been balanced and the stage is right down. At that point we put the slide on the stage and cut it into place and raised the stage as far as possible up with the course alteration handle. We ensured the target focal point is begun at 4X otherwise called the filtering objective. While we were glancing through the oculars we gradually brought down the phase until we could see our example. It was not satisfactory so with the fine change handle we dismissed the handle from us and fine engaged the example until we could see it much more clear. At that point we change the target focal point to 10X and again turned the fine change handle away from us until the example became more clear. We recalled to not contact the course alteration handle once we have moved away from the checking target focal point or we would lose our example. After we saw our example clear under 10X, we turned the target focal point to 40X and turned the fine change handle until we by and by observed an unmistakable example through the oculars. When we saw the example under 40X we turned the target focal point somewhere in the range of 40X and 100X, this is the place we utilized drenching oil as it were. We didn't bring down the phase to put oil submersion on the stage or our example would be gone. We utilized oil inundation is so there because path for light to escape through the slide, and the 100X target focal point. It is utilized as a bit of glass that doesn't allow the light to twist and refract, so the picture of our example is seen even more clear than previously. We place two drops of inundation oil on the slide and turned the target focal point right to 100X and slid the goal to and fro multiple times through the oil that way it is secured totally and there were no air bubbles. Utilizing the fine change handle we discovered our example by and by and it was more clear than at any other time. We have discovered your example. Under the magnifying lens the yellow example we recolored was a purple gram positive stain with a quadruplicate course of action. The beige creature we Gram recolored was a pink gram negative stain with no game plan. When we were finished with this piece of the analysis we chose as a gathering that the following test we expected to run was the Carbohydrate Fermentation test. The explanation behind picking this test was so we would have the option to decide whether the life form can corrupt and age starches with the creation of corrosive and gas. Subsequent to finding our examples we brought down the stage and removed the slide from the stage a cleaned the 100X oil target focal point with Kym wipes. We turned the target focal point back to 4X, the filtering objective, and killed the magnifying lens. On October 21, 2010 the Lactose Carbohydrate Fermentation test was recently chosen and arranged
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 7:22 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Isabella of Portugal (1503 - 1539), Habsburg Queen Isabella of Portugal Facts Known for: official of Spain during long unlucky deficiencies of her better half, Charles V, Holy Roman EmperorTitles: Empress, Holy Roman Empire; Queen of Germany, Spain, Naples, and Sicily; Duchess of Burgundy; princess (Infanta) of PortugalDates: October 24, 1503 - May 1, 1539 Foundation, Family: Mother: Maria of Castile and Aragon Maternal grandparents: Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon.Maria was the second spouse of Manuel IManuels first wife, Isabella, Princess of Asturias, was Marias sister,Ã¢ the oldest little girl of Isabella I and Ferdinand IIManuels third wife, Eleanor of Austria, was a niece of both Maria and Isabella, Manuels wives Father: Manuel I of Portugal Fatherly granddad: Ferdinand, Duke of ViseuPaternal grandma: Beatrice of PortugalBeatrice was a sister-in-law and first cousin of Afonso V of Portugal, and relative and second cousin of John II of PortugalBeatrices sister, additionally calledÃ Isabella of Portugal, wedded John II of Castile, and was the mother of Isabella IManuel succeeded his first cousin, John II of Portugal, who was hitched to Manuels sister, Eleanor of ViseuManuels more established sibling, Diogo, was wounded to death by John II Kin of Isabella of Portugal: Miguel de Paz, Prince of Portugal and AsturiasJohn III of PortugalBeatrice, Duchess of SavoyLouisFerdinandCardinal AfonsoHenryEdwardMaria, Duchess of Viseau Marriage, Children: Spouse: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (wedded March 11, 1526) Charles was Isabellas first cousinhis father was Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy and Holy Roman Emperorhis mother was Joanna of Castile (known as Juana the Mad), a sister of Isabellas mother, Maria, the two little girls of Isabella I and Ferdinand IIIsabellas sibling, John III of Portugal, had prior hitched Catherine of Austria, sister of Charles V, in 1525 Kids: Philip II of Spain (1527 - 1598), who wedded multiple times: Maria Manuela of Portugal, Mary I of England, Elizabeth of France, and Anna of AustriaMaria (1528 - 1603), Holy Roman Empress, wedded to Maximilian II, her first cousinJoan of AustriaÃ¢ (1535 - 1573), who wedded her twofold first cousin, John (Joo Manuel) of Portugal; their youngster was King Sebastian of Portugal, who passed on without childrenThree kids who were stillborn or kicked the bucket in early stages: Ferdinand (1529 - 1530), John (1537 - 1538), and an anonymous child (1539) Isabella of Portugal Biography: Isabella was brought into the world the second of the offspring of Manuel I of Portugal and his subsequent spouse, Maria of Castile and Aragon.Ã She was conceived in a time of sharp decay inÃ¢ her grandma, Isabella I of Castile, who kicked the bucket the following year. Marriage At the point when her dad kicked the bucket in 1521, her sibling, John III of Portugal, arranged a marriage with Catherine of Austria, sister of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. That marriage occurred in 1525, by which time exchanges had masterminded Charles to wed Isabella. They were hitched on March 10, 1526, at theÃ Alczar, a Moorish royal residence. John III and Isabella, sibling and sister, were first cousins of the sister and sibling they wedded: they were all grandkids of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, whose marriage joined Spain. Isabella and Charles may have hitched for monetary and dynastic reasons she carried a huge settlement to Spain yet letters of the time show that their relationship was something other than a marriage of accommodation. Charles V is known for making a world realm, shaping an extraordinary Habsburg domain which was established in Spain as opposed to in Germany.Ã Before his union with Isabella, different relationships had been investigated for him, including wedding a girl of Louis XII and a sister, Mary Tudor, of Henry VIII of England, a Hungarian princess.Ã Mary Tudor wedded the King of France, however after she was bereft, talks had started to wed her to Charles V.Ã When the coalition of Henry VIII and Charles V self-destructed, and Charles was still in struggle with France, the marriage with Isabella of Portugal was the coherent decision. Isabella has been portrayed as fragile and sensitive from the hour of her marriage. They shared strict piety.Ã¢ Kids and Legacy During Charles nonattendances from Spain in 1529-1532 and 1535-1539, Isabella filled in as his official. They had six kids, of whom the primary, third and fifth made due to adulthood. During one of Charles unlucky deficiencies, Isabella kicked the bucket in the wake of bringing forth her 6th youngster, a stillbirth. She was covered at Granada. Charles didn't remarry, however that was the standard custom for rulers.Ã He wore grieving dark until his passing. He later manufactured an illustrious tomb, where the remaining parts of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal are along with those of Charles mother, Juana, two of his sisters, two of their youngsters who kicked the bucket in early stages, and a little girl in-law. IsabellaÃ¢ and Charles child Philip II became leader of Spain, and in 1580, additionally turned into the leader of Portugal.Ã This incidentally joined the two Iberian nations. A representation of Empress Isabella by Titian depicts her at her embroidery, apparently sitting tight for the arrival of her significant other. Joan of Austria and Sebastian of Portugal This little girl of Isabella of Portugal was the mother of the disastrous Sebastian of Portugal and governed Spain as official for her sibling Philip II. Known for:Ã Habsburg princess; official of Spain for her brother,Ã Philip II Title by marriage:Ã Princess of PortugalDates:Ã June 24, 1535 - September 7, 1573Also known as:Ã Joan of Spain, Joanna, doÃ£ ±a Juana, Dona Joana Marriage, Children: spouse: Infante John Manuel, Prince of Portugal (wedded 1552)one child:SebastianÃ of Portugal (1554 - 1578) Joan of Austria Biography: Joan was conceived in Madrid. Her dad was King of Aragon and King of Castile, the first to control the assembled Spain, just as Holy Roman Emperor. Joan was in this manner an Infanta of Spain just as an Archduchess of Austria, some portion of the ground-breaking Habsburg family. Joan was hitched in 1552 to John Manuel, Infante of Portugal and anticipated that beneficiary should that seat. He was her twofold first cousin. The Habsburg family would in general wed cousins; both their folks were additionally first cousins of one another. Joan and John Manuel had similar grandmas, who were sisters: Joanna I and Maria, girls of Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon. They likewise had a similar two granddads: Philip I of Castile and Manuel I of Portugal. 1554 1554 was an earth shattering year. John Manuel had consistently been wiped out, enduring four siblings who passed on before him. On January 2, when Joan was pregnant with her first youngster, John Manuel kicked the bucket, of utilization or diabetes. He was just 16 years of age. On the twentieth of that month, Joan brought forth their child Sebastian. At the point when his fatherly granddad John III kicked the bucket three years after the fact, Sebastian became ruler. His fatherly grandma, Catherine of Austria, was official for Sebastian from 1557 to 1562. Be that as it may, Joan left later in 1554 for Spain, without her child. Her sibling, Philip II, had hitched the English Queen Mary I, and Philip joined Mary in England. Joan never observed her child again, however they related. Religious community of the Poor Clares In 1557, Joan established a religious community for the Poor Clares, Our Lady of Consolation. She likewise bolstered the Jesuits. Joan kicked the bucket in 1578, just 38 years of age, and was covered at the religious circle she had established, which got known as the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales. Sebastian's Fate Sebastian never wedded, and kicked the bucket on August 4, 1578, in fight while endeavoring a campaign against Morocco. He was just 22 years of age. Legends of his endurance of the fight and up and coming return prompted him being known as The Desired (o Desejado).
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 12:57 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
Learning to Use Pros and Cons Essay TopicsThe pros and cons essay are a great way to put your points across. For this reason, it is important that you choose a topic that is well-researched enough to be considered 'serious.' Here are some of the most commonly used topics for this type of essay.Pros and cons article writing is an effective way to place emphasis on both good and bad aspects of a situation. It is an excellent way to explore different opinions on a particular topic. Of course, this type of essay is not without its pros and cons!In this essay, the writer will utilize the general rules for writing academic essays, but will utilize them in a non-academic context. This means that the essay must be easy to read quickly, but it must be written in a logical manner that makes sense. As such, an individual can look at pros and cons essay topics and look for elements that they find useful in writing their own. In this way, the student is able to apply the information found in the essay to real life situations.Students have the ability to discover what is right for them and should use this skill to enhance their degree of learning. In this type of essay, it is important to keep all ideas in perspective. For example, individuals should remember that no matter how negative they think a situation may be, they are usually only thinking about the short term effects.Sometimes it's easier to focus on the good rather than on the bad of a situation. By examining both sides of the situation, individuals can learn to adjust their thinking and their feelings. For example, one may not like to drive to work, but the job requires him to do so, so he chooses to drive to work rather than take public transportation.This type of essay can be extremely popular when combined with general essay topics. It is not uncommon for many students to want to write a variety of essays covering a variety of topics, which is why it is often necessary to assign a specific topic and then keep t rack of the different types of essays that are required to address that topic. An individual who does not write a variety of essays might miss out on the educational benefits that may be gained by having a variety of different essays available to use.Essays dealing with public speaking and in other similar situations can have many different points that need to be discussed. Individuals can get a lot of experience in addressing these types of situations and this can have a positive effect on their overall performance at school. When individuals write pros and cons essay topics, they are practicing the skills that they need to discuss the things that they need to discuss in public.At the end of the day, it is important that pros and cons essay topics are used as a tool to support education. Even if the essay is not entirely focused on education, it can help individuals to take the necessary steps towards accomplishing their goals in life. As such, it is important that you allow yourse lf to write about these topics.
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 10:39 AM
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Si eres migrante indocumentado y radicasÃ en Nuevo MÃ ©xico puedes sacar legalmente una licencia de manejar siguiendo una serie de pasos que se explican en este artÃ culo. En la actualidad mÃ ¡s de diez estados permiten sacar este tipo de licenciaÃ a los indocumentados, pero no todas son iguales ni dan los mismos derechos. En cuanto a Nuevo MÃ ©xico yÃ los requerimientos, hay que distinguir entre los necesarios para renovar la licencia, que se explican al final de este artÃ culo, y los que en este momento piden para sacarla por primera vez. Licencia de manejar para indocumentados en Nuevo MÃ ©xico por primera vez Antes de aplicar por la licencia comprueba que tienes todos los documentos imprescindibles que te van a pedir cuando acudas a la cita a la oficina del Departamento de los VehÃ culos a Motor (MVD, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s). BÃ ¡sicamente vas a tener que probar tres cosas: residencia en el estado, tu identidad y un nÃ ºmero que te identifica. Para ello sÃ ³lo se admiten una serie de documentos muy especÃ ficos para cada categorÃ a. Para probar que efectivamente tienes tu domicilio en Nuevo MÃ ©xico Debes presentar DOS documentosÃ de entre los listados a continuaciÃ ³n:Ã Contrato de compra, hipoteca o lease (renta) de la viviendaExtracto del banco o del credit unionDocumento original de un municipio, condado, organizaciÃ ³n comunitariaÃ o tribu indÃ gena de Nuevo MÃ ©xico o del estado o gobierno federal en el que se diga que efectivamente resides en ese estadoFactura (utility bill) del agua, gas, electricidad,Ã lÃ nea fija de telÃ ©fono, televisiÃ ³n por cable o satÃ ©lite, recogida de basura. SÃ ³lo puedes presentar una factura de esta categorÃ a. Por ejemplo,Ã si presentas la de la electricidad no admiten tambiÃ ©n la del cablePrueba de que un hijo asiste a una escuela en el estado. Puede presentarse la forma de matriculaciÃ ³n o una carta en papel oficialÃ firmada por un oficial de la escuela.Recibo de pago del impuesto por ser propietario de bienes raÃ cesRecibo de sueldo o nÃ ³minaRegistraciÃ ³n de un auto, siempre y cuando sea actual y vÃ ¡lidaTarjeta de asistencia pÃ ºblica o mÃ ©dica que sea de Nuevo MÃ ©xico AdemÃ ¡s, si eres menor de 18 aÃ ±os puedes presentar como prueba de residencia en NM cualquier documento que pruebe que asistes a una escuela en ese estado o perteneces a un equipo deportivo u organizaciÃ ³n religiosa. Los documentos tienen que ser originales (no se aceptan copias), tener menos de 3 meses de antigÃ ¼edad y tu direcciÃ ³n debe de aparecer en ellos. Prueba de identidad cuando no tienes un NÃ ºmero del Seguro Social Debes tener uno de los siguientes documentos: Origial o copia de tu acta de nacimiento que debes de pedir a tu paÃ s. Tiene que ser traducida al inglÃ ©s por una persona con buen conocimiento del inglÃ ©s y del espaÃ ±ol y debe firmar su traducciÃ ³n siguiendo este modelo. AdemÃ ¡s, debe notarizarse. No se admite que el traductor y el notario sean la misma persona.Certificado de matrimonio si te has casado en cualquiera de los 50 estados de EEUU o uno de sus territorios, como por ejemplo, Puerto Rico.Orden de una corte de los Estados Unidos con sello en la que se declara que has cambiado de nombre o que te has divorciado o que has cambiado de gÃ ©nero. En este caso, la orden debe contener tu nombre legal y tu fecha de nacimiento.Una licencia de manejar, learnerÃ ´s permit, tarjeta de ID emitida por un estado de EEUU o por el gobierno federal o por CanadÃ ¡. En este caso debe de tener una foto y ser vÃ ¡lida o haber expirado no hace mÃ ¡s de un aÃ ±o.MatrÃ cula consular emitida despuÃ ©s del uno de febrero de 2005 por el consulado mexicano de El Paso o el de Albuquerque.Tu pasaporte. Tiene que ser vÃ ¡lido y no estar vencido. Prueba de NÃ ºmero de IdentificaciÃ ³n cuando no tienes un NÃ ºmero del Seguro Social Debes presentar uno de los siguientes documentos: MatrÃ cula consular de los consulados mexicanos en El Paso o en Albuquerque con fecha posterior al 1 de febrero de 2005.Tu pasaporte vÃ ¡lido.El ITIN, pero esto sÃ ³lo si se emplea como prueba de ID la matrÃ cula o el pasaporte. CÃ ³mo entender estos requerimientos Debes presentar dos documentos del listado de prueba de residencia, uno de prueba de identidad o ID y otro como prueba de nÃ ºmero de identificaciÃ ³n. Hay dos documentosÃ¢â¬âpasaporte y matrÃ culaÃ¢â¬âque se pueden utilizar como identidad o como prueba, pero si utilizas uno de ellos para una cosa, no puedes utilizarla para la otra. CÃ ³mo aplicar por la licencia por primera vez Si eres menor de 25 aÃ ±os, debes cumplir con requisitos adicionales. Si ya has cumplido esa edad, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con los ciudadanos americanos, los extranjeros no pueden presentarse en una oficina del MVD. Es necesario realizar una cita previa aquÃ . TambiÃ ©n puedes cerrarla marcando al 505-827-2257. En Choose appointment type, escoge First Time Foreign National DL/ID. AdemÃ ¡s, necesitarÃ ¡s pasar un examen de visiÃ ³n, un examen escrito, el de carretera y pagar un arancel. RenovaciÃ ³n de la licencia Si ya tienes una licencia de manejar de Nuevo MÃ ©xico para renovarla no puedes hacerlo por internet si no tienes un NÃ ºmero del Seguro Social. Si ese es tu caso, la Ã ºnica manera es acudir en persona a una oficinal del MVD. Si ya tiene mÃ ¡s de un aÃ ±o de vencimiento, tendrÃ ¡s que tomar de nuevo el examen escrito. Y si tiene mÃ ¡s de cinco aÃ ±os de vencimiento, tambiÃ ©n el de carretera. Tip de interÃ ©s Si no puedes obtener la licencia porque no cumples con los requisitos,Ã infÃ ³rmate y evita ser vÃ ctima del fraude deÃ las licencias internacionales para manejar en Estados Unidos cuando vives aquÃ .
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 3:21 AM
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2645 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Argumentative essay Level High school Did you like this example? The Boston Consulting Group Abstract This research paper looks at the evaluation and analysis of The Boston Consulting GroupÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s human resources department. It shows the relationship between its consultants and organizational behaviors. Organizational performance at BCG has proven to be a significant factor in the health of the company. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Boston Consulting Group" essay for you Create order The report also illustrates the practices used by the company for its effectiveness and success. Also, the company developed the BCG Matrix which is used to introduce the growth-share matrix that is relative to competitors. The main role of The Boston Consulting Group is to hire the most skilled employees to effectively and efficiently fulfill the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s objectives without constant supervision. Ranked as the 3rd most prestigious consultant firm across the nation and being the leading advisor on business strategy, BCG has a strong work ethic and a strategy to transform their business to meet every clients needs for a successful outcome. The Boston Consulting Group Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on employee benefits, compensation, diversity, employee training and relations, safety and security, and corporate social responsibility. HRM is transforming to adapt to todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s business world and ex pected to add value to the strategic operation of employees (HR Disciplines, n.d.). Any organization, without a strategic system for HRM is clear to experience some serious problems. Thats why many companies are putting more effort and energy into setting up a strong and effective HRM. Founded in 1963 by Bruce Henderson, a Harvard Business School graduate, The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is the worldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s leading advisor on business strategy. BCG provides management consultancy services to private, public, and not-for-profit sectors worldwide. The company is rated #3 on Forbes list of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âBest Companies to Work for in 2014Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Best companies to work for 2014, n.d.). The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is an organization with exceptional HR planning. Their HR department relies on its core responsibilities of personnel recruitment and hiring, application management, training and development programs, benefits administration and compliance with legal and federal regulation. The HR department BCG also plays as a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing employees, the workplace culture and the environment. It enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishments of the organizations goals and objectives (Boston Consulting Group, 2013). Last year, the company celebrated its 50th anniversary, and today has more than 9,000 employees working in 81 offices in 45 countries. Human capital management (HCM) is related to the strategy of developing the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s biggest asset, its people, whose current value can be measured and whose future value can be enhanced through investment in order to make an organization succeed (What is human capital in management, 2013). BCG is one of the best overall providers of human capital management with its strategy consulting. The BCG has a strong sense of the word Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âteamÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . It i s not an individual company. The Boston Consulting GroupÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s mission is to: Create competitive advantage through unique solutions Build capabilities and mobilizing organizations Drive sustainable impact Provide unparalleled opportunities for personal growth Succeed together with passion and trust (BCG: Mission, 2007) Also, the company has a high focus on diversity and flexibility in the workplace. And, BCG has a variety of benefit options that stand out. Such as, it pays 100% of employee health care premiums, offer paid sabbaticals and grants new consultants to delay their start date by six months and receive $10,000 to volunteer at a nonprofit. The firm values its employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s eagerness and motivation to keep up with the extensive travel demands as a consultant, the long hours, and give 100% every time. But, the company does not want its employees to burn out and have implemented a work-life balance approach (Breslin, 2013). Human resource policies and compliances are the official guidelines that organizations put in place. These policies are for hiring, training, and assessing current and future associates of their workforce. These policies need to be instilled in every employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s minds and written down on paper so it can be clearly understood. Employees like to know exactly what their role is in the company and how their work affects the company. Having a clear structure is essential to a companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s success. At, BCG every consultant knows exactly what their role is and how it corresponds back to the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s overall strategy and goals. The consulting industry is a very demanding and rigorous profession. That is why, BCG consultants carry bachelor degrees and higher. The duties and responsibilities of a consultant at BCG are quite extensive and clearly stated before hired. Some of them are: International travel More than 8 hour work days A lot of liaising and multitasking different clients and projects Writing action plans and daily reports Conduct interviews with key market players Create strategies for change Must have confidentiality and great interpersonal skills (Career path, 2008) This is just a summation of the duties and responsibilities of a consultant at BCG. Other job titles are project leader, principal, and partner. Once the consultant becomes well-learned and have enough experience and success as a consultant, they are able to move up the ladder to these positions at the BCG. Shaping the Future. Together. That is the vision of The Boston Consulting Group, who has won countless awards for Worlds Most Attractive Employer or Top Companies to Work for, etc. BCG is known for being the worldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s leading advisor on business strategy. This organizations focus, attention to detail, and going Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âabove and beyondÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã for the client has made this company what it is today. Organizations face an extremely difficult set of challenges with such a fluctuating economic climate. Their strategic capabilities are grounded in the same basic philosophies. Boston Consulting Group and their Human Resources Department stay on top of t hings because of various strategies to combat the ever-changing market. The companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s business strategy drives work force needs (BCG, 2014). BCG has a few core standards that determine the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s strategy. The main ones are integrity, respect for the individual, delivering value, and making an impact on society (BCG, 2014). Integrity involves accountability and doing the correct thing at all times. Respect for the individual entails treating everyone regardless of position with thoughtfulness and respect. That calls for a unique truthfulness and honesty that only happens when everyone is open and upfront at all times, whether good or bad. Delivering value is self-explanatory. BCG is committed to generating value that returns much more than a return on a clientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s investment. That requires hard work and setting an extremely high standard for the company. Making an impact on society just means BCG wants to make an impact beyond t he business. BCG donates their time and resources to community issues and institutions that are prevalent in our society (BCG, 2014). The companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s values align up with their mission. BCG seeks to be agents of change for their clients, people, and society overall. BCG is committed to producing a viable advantage through unique solutions, building strong competencies and mobilizing organizations, driving a justifiable impact, providing unequalled opportunities for personal growth, and succeeding together with passion and trust. BCG has wide-ranging experience helping each client redesign and supplements their planning approaches. Transforming business and society is their ultimate mission that they have succeeded at. BCGÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s emphasis on investment in its people, career flexibility and mobility, extensive training, high-impact client work, a collaborative culture, progressive benefits, and a commitment to social-impact work have all contributed to the consistently strong showing. Specific benefits include 100 percent coverage of employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ health-care premiums, internal fellowships, and tuition reimbursement. The firm also has been recognized for its LGBT-friendly benefits and policies (Top-consultant.com, 2014). BCGÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s approach to business has been unparalleled. BCG has identified what works with their superiority leadership capabilities and their extraordinary talent pool. Together with each client, they develop new visions about the business, summon each company on how to move forward, get bottom-line results, and make each company more capable going forward in the ever-changing economy and success in the twenty-first century. The Boston Consulting Group has been recognized as a consistent top employer for the past several years as it became Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âone of only two firms to make the top dozen every year since 2006Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in the FortuneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s 100 Best Comp anies to Work For List (Creating people advantage 2012, 2012). In fact, this year BCG actually ranked number 3 on the list, a step up from being number 4 in 2013 (The Boston Consulting Group, n.d.). The practices and policies executed in HR have contributed greatly to this success. There are several HR functions that are implemented within the organization in order to strategically partner with the company. The chart below shows the top 5 HR functions or processes that have the most impact on the profit growth, profit margin, and total improvement of the company. HR Function or Process Profit Growth Profit Margin Total Improvement 1. Recruiting 3.5x 2.0x 5.5 2. On boarding and retention 2.5x 1.9x 4.4 3. Managing Talent 2.2x 2.1x 4.3 4. Employer Branding 2.4x 1.8x 4.2 5. Performance Management and rewards 2.1x 2.0x 4.1 Source: Sullivan, J. News Flash: Recruiting Has the Highest Business Impact of any HR Function As noted in the chart above, BCGÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s HR leaders contribute much of its effectiveness to several practices, but the practice that is considered to have the greatest impact on revenue growth and profit margins is recruiting (Sullivan, 2012). Of course, all of the functions are important, but recruiting has proven to have the greatest impact on the business. The Boston Consulting Group collaborates with clients to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âbuild a competitive, measurable, and sustainable staffing advantage through strategic focus, business connection, and excellence in executionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (BCG: Human resources competencies, 2009). The HR team has been very strategic in assisting with achieving this mission and the policies and HR functions implemented have led to the expansion of the company to enable the execution of the mission in a greater capacity. The chart below briefly shows how through the implementation of HR practices, such as recruiting, has caused the company to increase in number of employees both in the U.S. and outside of the U.S. 2013 2014 U. S. Employees 2,314 2,552 Employees Outside U.S. 6,300 6,982 100% Healthcare Coverage yes yes Professional Training Salaried employees (hrs/yr) 100 hours 100 hours Professional Training Hourly Employees (hrs/yr) 40 hours 40 hours Source: Fortune (2014). Best Companies 2014 The chart also shows how HR invests in the employees by providing 100% paid healthcare coverage for all of the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s full-time employees as well as provide extensive professional training each year to make sure the employees are equipped and trained with the knowledge and understand necessary to perform well. This also resembles the heart of the company, showing that the employees are viewed as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhuman assets,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã which could be a contributing factor to its consistent appearance in FortuneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s 100 Best Companies to Work For List. Overall, HRÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s policies and practices are positively impacting the organization, and assisting with the achievement of organizational goals. In the 1970s, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) created a matrix for a portfolio strategy to help their organizations of being objective and fact-based. A well-known evaluated portfolio objective way for a strategic decision for future investment returns is outlined by the BCG Matrix. The four quadrant strategic objective of individual business units are stars, cash cows, problem-child or question mark, and dog. This framework applies two inputs, market growth and market share to a portfolio of segments, products or businesses, and then draws conclusions about how resources (e.g. talent, investment) should be allocated across the portfolio (BCG Matrix, n.d., para.1).) The BCG matrix is a useful portfolio for resource allocation decisions as a good starting point. Business units, products, or market segments are able to be used for a portfolio as a powerful communication tool. This creates an understanding and popularity of the organization of explaining difficult resource allocation decisions. ItÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s a harder challenge based on objective data and through touch decisions it is a useful tool to push. The first quadrant is the future of the business which is c ritical and the first priority is for discretionary investments as a stance for Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âstarsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã defended at all costs. The second quadrant is a sustain leadership position is enough to ensure investment of generated funds in the higher growth parts of the portfolio called Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcashcowsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã of not milking them dry. The third quadrant is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âProblem ChildrenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âQuestionmarkÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã being the toughest business of taken the next step. A binary investment stance is called Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDouble or QuitsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã which is the best name of making a decision. It is a very heavy investment to grow market share by selected bets and making them the Stars of the future. It begins as a relative weakness position of a growing market resulting in the business making the best selective bets of achieving a leadership position with strong beliefs. This would be a tough decision to ignore of other high g rowth opportunities. The last quadrant is call a typical investment stance Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDogÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âHarvest/ExitÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã which should not be divest or exit business rapidly due to having low value and during the sale process it will distract management. The capacity of being Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âharvestedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã properly leaves them weak competitive position which will disappear quickly if investment is reduced. Rather they could be set up to operate with minimal resource drain on the rest of the portfolio, as the best people and all discretionary resources are diverted to more attractive businesses (BCG Matrix, n.d., para.4). To conclude we have touched on what Human Resource Management is and the role that it plays in an organization. HRM is transforming to adapt to the changes in the world and todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s employees. Any company without an HRM will encounter some problems and so that is why a lot of organizations are putting m uch more effort into making their HRM strong and effective. The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is an organization with one of the best HR planning. Their HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and accomplishments of the main organizations goals and the direction itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s going in. We touched on the top 5 HR functions that have the most impact on profit growth, profit margin and total improvement of the company. The practice that had the most impact on business is recruiting as it contributes to revenue growth also. The BCG main focus is investment in its people, career flexibility and mobility, extensive training, high impact client work, a collaborative culture, progressive benefits and a commitment to social impact. BCG develops new visions and is always changing with the economy to help better assist its employees and organizations. References BCG: Human resources competencies. (2009, September 4). Retrieved from https://www.bcg.com/expertise_impact/capabilities/people_organization/human_resources/competencies.aspx BCG Matrix. (n.d.). Retrieved from IES Business Strategy: https://strategicthinker.wordpress.com/concept-template-5/ BCG Mission. (2007, September 4). Retrieved from https://www.bcg.com/about_bcg/vision/mission.aspx Best companies to work for 2014. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://fortune.com/best-companies/the-boston-consulting-group-3/ Boston Consulting Group. (2013). Retrieved from www.bcg.com Breslin,M.M. (2013, February 20). Part of Boston Consulting Groups success comes from looking out for its workers. Retrieved from https://www.workforce.com/articles/part-of-boston-consulting-group-s-success-comes-from-looking-out-for-its-workers Career path: Your road to success. (2008, September 4). Retrieved from https://www.bcg.com/careers/career_growth/career_path/ Creating people advantage 201 2: Mastering HR challenges in a two-speed world. (2012, October). Retrieved from https://www.hragenda.net/uploads/6/7/8/0/6780997/bcg_creating_people_advantage_oct_2012_tcm80-119346.pdf HR Disciplines. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/pages/default.aspx# Sullivan,J. (2012, September 4). News flash: Recruiting has the highest business impact of any HR function. Retrieved from https://www.ere.net/2012/09/04/news-flash-recruiting-has-the-highest-business-impact-of-any-hr-function/ The Boston Consulting Group: Best companies to work for 2014. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://fortune.com/best-companies/the-boston-consulting-group-3/ What is human capital in management? (2013, May 24). Retrieved from https://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/what-is-human-capital-in-management-definition-value-quiz.html#lesson
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 9:56 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Edmond Rostand s Cyrano de Bergerac is considered to be a Chivalric Romance but it also contains humor throughout. The play uses comedy throughout all of the acts for a variety of reasons. Cyrano who is the main character of the play is also the largest comic influence. With Cyrano, we see him develop through comedy and learn more about his character with it, and it is not only used by Cyrano but also many other characters. Comedy is used in a variety of ways throughout Cyrano de Bergerac such as wordplay and sarcasm. The comedy is all used for different reasons, nevertheless, the humor in Cyrano plays an important role in the play. During the play Cyrano de Bergerac there are often very deep and depressing moments and to pick the audience up Edmund Rostand used humor. This is seen in all of the acts throughout the play and is one of the main uses of humor in the play. This is not the only use of humor in this play it is also used by Cyrano to hide his insecurities. Throughout the play, Cyrano makes fun of his own nose to make it seem like he is comfortable with it and so others can not make fun of it. Humor definitely plays an important role in Cyrano de Bergerac and through this essay, I will be examining the role of Humor in the play in depth. One of the most well-known scenes in Cyrano De Bergerac is his monologue about his nose. He makes Jokes about his nose after being insulted about it by Valvert. The insult was not great and Cyrano improved on it with hisShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Cyrano de Bergerac, A Play by Edmond Rostand888 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThroughout the play Cyrano de Bergerac written by Edmond Rostand, the audience comes to hold dearly the heart of the protagonist, Cyrano a strong man with a rather gargantuan nose. It is through discussions and insults concerning his physical attributes that the audience discovers he is in fact in love with the woman he has held close to his heart for many friendly years, his cousin Roxane. Completely unbeknownst to Roxane, CyranoÃ¢â¬â¢s love and admiration for her is not simply on a relative scale as
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 4:27 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Teaching Strategies Adopted by the Teachers in Science High School Handling II-Acacia free essay sample
Abstract The researchers sought to determine the teaching strategies of the II-Acacia teachers. This study intends to help various people. The data gathered in the study will be beneficial to the students, faculty, parents, DepEd, and future researchers. Through this study, the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching strategies can be determined. Specifically, it will seek answers to the following sub-problems: 1. What teaching strategies are used by the teachers? 2. What teaching strategies are most often and most seldom used by the teachers? 3. What are the implications of the findings to classroom instruction? 4. What are the recommendations to improve classroom instruction? The researchers used questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to teachers. Afterwards, the data was retrieved then organized in tabular form. Then it was copied in to the SPSS. Each teaching strategy employed in the II-Acacia was interpreted one by one. Then, a conclusion was derived. Introduction Since the beginning of time teachers started to pass on their knowledge to their students, over the years they started developing techniques for teaching from basic demonstration to the use of visual aids. Teachers have become an integral part in the society; they provide knowledge to make the child ready when we become adults. Teachers have different strategies to use for the students to learn. According to oregon. gov there are 4 varieties of teaching methods and these are Demonstration, Question and Answer, Role Play, and Short Lecture. As part of a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching strategy they also have a variety of teaching materials which they can use. These can be Audiovisual, Interactive computer, or Games. A teacher is nothing without a student. Students are the main reason why teachers exist. Students have learning techniques to suit them. According to mindtools. com students have 8 learning styles these are Sensory, Intuitive, Visual, Verbal, Active, Reflective, Sequential, and Global. Sensory learners prefer concrete, practical, and procedural information. They look for the facts. Intuitive learners prefer conceptual, innovative, and theoretical information. They look for the meaning. Visual learners prefer graphs, pictures, and diagrams. They look for visual representations of information. Verbal learners prefer to hear or read information. They look for explanations with words. Active learners prefer to manipulate objects, do physical experiments, and learn by trying. They enjoy working in groups to figure out problems. Reflective learners prefer to think things through, to evaluate options, and learn by analysis. They enjoy figuring out a problem on their own. Sequential learners prefer to have information presented linearly and in an orderly manner. They put together the details in order to understand the big picture emerges. Global learners prefer a holistic and systematic approach. They see the big picture first and then fill in the details. Research Problem The researchers want to determine what learning method is commonly used and evaluate it if the learning technique is really effective. This study evaluates and assesses the different teaching strategies of teachers utilized by the teacher in AQ Science High School. The researchers will use SPSS as the statistical tool to evaluate the data. Specifically, it seeks answers to the following sub-problems: 1. What teaching strategies are used by the teachers? 2. What teaching strategies are most often and most seldom used by the teachers? 3. What are the implications of the findings to classroom instruction? 4. What are the recommendations to improve classroom instruction? Related Literature and Studies Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less, to make learning environments more interactive, to integrate technology into the learning experience, and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate. Teaching methods are best articulated by answering the questions, What is the purpose of education? and What are the best ways of achieving these purposes? Ã¢â¬ For much of prehistory, educational methods were largely informal, and consisted of children imitating or modelling their behaviour on that of their elders, learning through observation and play. In this sense, the children are the students, and the elder is the teacher; a teacher creates the course materials to be taught and then enforces it. Pedagogy is a different way by which a teacher can teach. It is the art or science of being a teacher, generally referring to strategies of instruction or style of instruction. Resources that help teachers teach better are typically a lesson plan, or practical skill involving learning and thinking skills. A curriculum is often set by the Government with precise standards. These standards can change frequently, depending on what the Government states. A study from . asian-efl-journal, the bulk of research into Chinese studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ problem with plagiarism in both the Anglophone and Chinese contexts has given much attention to the culture/education versus language debate, and the development versus morality debate. This study explored the views of two groups of Chinese college English teachers in those regards, one with an experience of English-medium academic training (the PGDELT trainee teachers, n = 29) and the other without (the EFL in-service teachers, n = 30). All participants completed a questionnaire with a few being interviewed. The results indicated that (a) the EFL in-service teachers tended to see Chinese college EFL learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ plagiarism more as a linguistic problem, whereas the PGDELT trainee teachers tended to see it more as a cultural/educational problem; and (b) the EFL in-service teachers seemed to take a moral perspective as indicated by their penalty-oriented approach to the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ plagiarism, whereas the PGDELT trainee teachers appeared to take a more developmental perspective as shown by their pedagogy-oriented approach to the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ plagiarism. However, while there seems to be strong evidence for the differences between the two groups in their perceptions regarding the culture/education versus language debate, there is only limited evidence for their different perceptions concerning the development versus morality debate. Moreover, the two groups were also found to differ to some extent in their perceptions concerning the causes of, remedial approaches, and punitive reactions to student plagiarism. Finally, the implications of this study are discussed and recommendations for future research presented. Most teachers and pupils have experienced misunderstanding in an English as a Foreign Language class. Take for example this episode of a teacher being puzzled by a pupil coming to the board, because he said, Ã¢â¬Å"CanÃ¢â¬â¢t hear! Ã¢â¬ (not Ã¢â¬Å"come here ! Ã¢â¬ ). Communication is ruined if there is phonological misunderstanding. Troubetskoy explains that a learner is deaf to foreign sounds, which receive an incorrect phonological interpretation since they are Ã¢â¬Å"strained through the phonological sieve of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother tongueÃ¢â¬ . As a result, there are numerous misinterpretations (1986, p. 54). This shows how tricky phonological appropriation can be for EFL teaching. By phonological appropriation, we mean matters of sounds, that is phonetics -the study of speech sounds , but also, rhythm and intonation, phonology Ã¢â¬Å"the abstract way phonemes functionÃ¢â¬ (Roach, 2000, p. 44), as well as a mastering level of a linguistic form and its meaning, allowing a learner to use it in an authentic communication situation. Interaction is social and reveals how communication between the learner and other speakers leads to the FL appropriation. By interaction, we mean a language-dynamic communicative exchange among individuals in a functional pragmatic frame (Bailly, 1998, p. 135). This paper is based on both research and teaching, since its author is a researcher and a teacher trainer; it aims at raising this crucial question: Can oral interaction be a trigger to phonetic and phonological appropriation? To start with, this was posed to a group of 80 EFL supervisors coaching teacher trainees in partnership with the University School of Education in Reunion Island (IUFM de la Reunion, France) and their answers were staggering: Can interaction activities favour phonological learning? Yes: 9 No: 39 DonÃ¢â¬â¢t know: 32 Can discrimination activities favour phonological learning? Yes: 63 No: 13 DonÃ¢â¬â¢t know: 4 This quick survey shows that, unlike discrimination, interaction is not necessarily considered as a means of furthering phonological appropriation. By discrimination, we mean an auditory decoding process allowing the learner to match a speech sound with what he knows. The above-mentioned survey indeed raises many more questions: What about the consequent distinction between the conscious and unconscious process? What about the dichotomy between a form-focused versus a meaning-focused process? What is the respective role of input and output in phonological appropriation? To what extent can motivation help? The main problem raised here is whether cognitive psychology can address all questions, and what could be done to sort it out. It will therefore be worth wondering in this qualitative, descriptive, analytic and experimental study, whether oral interaction, which is now a full skill in the Common European Frame of Reference for Languages, can be seen as a real trigger to phonological appropriation. This study is built on a teacher traineeÃ¢â¬â¢s experience in Reunion Island, Indian Ocean. Reunion is the 23rd French region. L1 is Creole French; L2 is French. The major first foreign language taught at school is English (80% choose English, the others taking Spanish, German, Chinese or Tamil). Pupils start learning English as early as primary teaching at the age of 7. The teacher trainee involved is a 24-year-old French-speaking colleague who studied English both at the local university and abroad through an Erasmus exchange programmed. She passed the national competitive proficiency exam for EFL secondary teaching (known as CAPES). The University school of education tutor, who is also the author of this article, visits her in class three times in the year. The class involved is a B1 class (Threshold level in the CEFRL) of 24 fifteen-year-old teenagers. The school mentioned is a secondary high school. This group level is somewhat average with a majority of girls. The group personality is somewhat inhibited and introverted. Their fluency is slowed down by pronunciation difficulties. None has gone to an English speaking country before and all often feel self-conscious when they have to communicate in a foreign language. Our analysis will be threefold. We shall first examine an experience in this B1 class, in which phonology is acquired through phonological discrimination and tested through interaction. We will therefore deduce theoretical and practical issues. In a second part, we will enlarge our theoretical scope and try to find answers to our issues. Eventually, this will lead to a second experience and us to practical assumptions in the same B1 class, this time integrating oral interaction as a trigger to phonological appropriation. A comparison between the two similar assessments should be revealing: sound acquisition, word and sentence rhythm, intonation will be tested by three persons, the trainee for the sounds, the supervisor (a qualified teacher at that school) for rhythm, and myself (a lecturer and a trainer at the university school of education) for intonation. An average class situation was set up in November 2006 (Classe de seconde 4, 24 pupils, Lycee Boisjoly Potier, Tampon, Reunion) taught by our teacher trainee. The sequence was planned for three lessons. The cultural unifier was violence in New York. Two documents were studied: Ã¢â¬Å"Rudolph GiulianiÃ¢â¬ (Appendix 1) as a listening activity (Assou, 2004, p. 57), Ã¢â¬Å"New York City Mayor disturbed by police officerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of forceÃ¢â¬ , November 28, 2006 (Appendix 2), as a reading activity. Once listening and reading, together with speaking will be over, phonology will be acquired through listening discrimination. A final interaction test should help to measure this acquisition. Related Studies The respondents from the college of Nursing and Health Sciences ofÃ ten preferred to use the following teaching methods: Lecture/Discussion Combination, Class Discussion and In-class Demonstration. They rarely preferred to use Jigsaw Method, Guest speakers, Oral presentations and Panel of experts. The data indicate that some faculty still hold the traditional passive view of learning which involves situations where materials are delivered to students using a lecture-based format. Although the findings of a study by de Caprariis, Barman and Magee (2001) suggest that lecture leads to the ability to recall facts and discussion produces higher level compreÃ hension, a more modern view of learning where students are expected to be active in the learning process by participating in collaborative activiÃ ties may prove more effective. A research on group-oriented discussion methods has shown that team learning and student-led activities not only produce favorable student performance outcomes, but also foster greater participation, self confidence and leadership ability (Perkins and Saris, 2001; Yoder and Hochevar, 2005). The results of the study of Hunt, Haidet, Coverdale, and Richards (2003) on the student performance in team learning methods show positive learning outcomes as compared to traditional lecture-based methods. In contrast to these findings, a study by Barnes and Blevins (2003) sugÃ gests that active, discussion-based methods are inferior to the traditionÃ al lecture-based method. However, a comparison of lecture combined with discussion versus active, cooperative learning methods by Morgan, Whorton, and Gunsalus (2000) demonstrated that the use of the lecÃ ture combined with discussion resulted in superior retention of material among students. The Polytechnic Institute (PI) supports the curricula designed to cultiÃ vate and promote among the students high levels of scholarship, desire to seek understanding, a solid foundation in professional and personal responsibility, desire for service, and an ability/willingness to serve as leaders within both the engineering and architecture profession and sociÃ ety. Thus, the graduate of PI must possess the ability to identify, formuÃ late and execute solutions to multidisciplinary problems encountered in the practice of engineering and architecture. In order to realize these objectives, the faculty of the PI adopts certain teaching methods adapted to the subject matter, capacity of the students, situational needs and related to actual life situations and practices. The data show that the respondents from the Polytechnic Institute always preferred Lecture/Discussion Combination and role playing. Also they always preferred to use lab work and applied projects as teaching methods. They never preferred the Jigsaw Method; Index Card Exercise; Guided Imagery; Socratic Methods; ILPE Method and Brain Writing. The development of problem-solving skills is one of the primary goals of the PI curricula. Problem solving involves five basic components: recÃ ognize and define the problem; formulate the model and identify variÃ ables, knowns and unknowns; select an appropriate solution technique and develop appropriate equations; apply the solution technique (solve the problem); and validate the solution. Solution validation is one of the most important steps in this process and includes interpreting the soluÃ tion, identifying its limitations, and assessing its reasonableness using appropriate approximate solutions or common sense. Allowing the stuÃ dents to engage in lab work and project studies will help them develop problem solving skills. Also, role playing when properly used introduces problem situation dramatically, provides opportunity for the students to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view. FurÃ thermore, it allows the students to explore solutions and provides opporÃ tunity to practice the skills. The faculty of the College of Business Administration envision to contribÃ ute to the intellectual and personal growth and development of the students and to enhance the competence of the students to engage in all phases of business activity and management. In order to achieve these objectives, the data show that they always preferred Lecture/Discussion ComÃ bination and Class Discussion but rarely preferred to use Jigsaw Method, Index Card Exercise and Panel of experts as teaching methods. This means that the faculty of the College of Business Administration believed that by using the Lecture method combined with class discusÃ sion, the students would be able to acquire knowledge on the core areas of business, perceive the global nature of organizational and economic activities, recognize the role of law and ethics in business behaviour, unÃ derstand and appreciate the impact of demographic diversity on organiÃ zations and understand and appreciate the impact of sustainability and the natural environment on organizations, the impact of organizations on sustainability and the natural environment, understand organizations and the process of management, develop the ability to work effectively, indeÃ pendently and collaboratively, and integrate core area skills in problem solving and decision making. The College of Arts, Sciences and Education brings together disciplines in the arts, humanities, mathematics, natural sciences, and social sciencÃ es and education t o form the intellectual heart of the University. It fosters liberal education, promotes lifelong learning, research, creative activÃ ity, social and professional responsibility, and growth. To these ends, its faculty challenges students to think critically and intuitively, cross disciÃ plinary boundaries, recognize and value diverse perspectives, and solve problems creatively by through the use of different teaching methods. Since the College of Arts, Sciences and Education is committed to a liberal education orientation, it must provide the students with opporÃ tunities for: expansion of the boundary of knowledge, preservation and enrichment of a countrys cultural heritage, development of personal and social adjustment, cultivation of intelligent citizenship, acquisition of self-discovery and self-understanding, development of an oral and writÃ ten competency, maximization of the capacity for critical and imaginaÃ tive thinking, and understanding of international relations and affairs. This awareness of the commonly held objectives of the college provided broad bases for the facultyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of various teaching activities and methÃ ods. Thus, in this college, learning should provide opportunities beyond the knowledge of the subject matter of a particular course. The courses should not be restricted to the instruction of abstract theories, but should afford opportunities for students to develop skills of effective oral and written expression, to improve their ability to relate to others, to learn to think critically and scientifically, and to feel the need for continuous growth even outside the university campus. The importance of such inÃ tellectual and social stimulation beyond the mere knowledge parameters of the course content should be emphasized. The college has the following major departments: Natural sciences, Mathematics, Social Sciences, LLH/Communication and MAPE/ProfesÃ sional Education. It is assumed that the teaching methods used in the class may differ from subject to subject since the method that the faculty may prefer to use may depend on the goals of the subject. The goal of the Natural Sciences component of the curriculum is to help the students increase their scientific literacy and capacity to apÃ proach scientific materials intelligently, and to convey the general understanding of science as a way of looking at the world. In order to achieve these goals, the faculty of the Natural Sciences DepartÃ ment often preferred to use Lecture/Discussion Combination, Team Project Method, lab work, Worksheets/Surveys, In-class DemonstraÃ tion, Panel of Experts and Explanatory Discussion as their teaching methods. However, the data show that the respondents had never preferred to use guest speakers, applied projects, Simulation and the ILPE Method. The next data on the teaching method preferences are from the Mathematics teachers of the College of Arts, Sciences and Education. The findings of the study show that this group of respondents always preferred in-class exercises. This group of respondents never preferred to use Jigsaw Method, guest speakers, Videotapes, Report-Back Session, Role Playing, Panel of exÃ perts, Explanatory Discussion, Reflective Discussion, Debate, ILPE Method, Guided Imagery, Brain Writing and PBL as teaching methods. This implies that the faculty adopted these teaching methods in order to provide the students precision in numerical expression, logical thinking and problem solving. However, other instructional methods may also be proven effective for developing mathematical comprehension. The most important of these could be the use of hands-on, active learning techÃ niques in the classroom. Of equal import is the need to make students understand the utility of the material they are being taught. Students need to understand and appreciate the need for their courses. Many students leave their mathematics courses thinking that the material will never be used in their courses. It is essential that mathematics courses have some future value in their program of studies. The mathematics portion of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculum should not be simply something Ã¢â¬Å"to get through. Ã¢â¬ This means that the faculty teaching mathematics and others must coorÃ dinate their curriculum. They must teach concepts and methods that are applicable to current practice, and these methods must be employed in other curriculum within a reasonable time period after the students learn the techniques. In mathematics teaching, teachers provide students with adequate opporÃ tunities to engage in math activities to help them in the self-exploration and cooperation and exchange in the process to really understand and master the mathematics knowledge and skills, ideas and methods, and to learn valuable math. Thus, participation and learning efficiency of the method is used when appropriate relevant. The social sciences component of the curriculum aims to make the stuÃ dents aware of the general problems and issues, especially those with relevance to the Philippine society; and to enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ awareness of the importance of scientific approaches to the discussion and analysis of social issues. In order to achieve these aims, the faculty teaching the social sciences always preferred Brainstorming as their teaching method but rarely preferred Role Playing, Role Playing, Index Card Exercise and Panel of experts. Another data of the teaching method preferences are from the LLH/ComÃ munication faculty of College of Arts, Sciences and Education. The data indicates that this group of faculty often preferred Lecture/DiscusÃ sion Combination, in-class exercises, Brainstorming, Class Discussion, Explanatory Discussion, Reflective Discussion and Simulation. Most probably these are the teaching methods that the faculty teaching LLH/Communication perceived that could provide the students with effecÃ tive communication skills in both English and Filipino, foster critical understanding and appreciation of how people give expression to their experiences in the world, develop in the students the students to see the grammatical relationships between words, group of words and sentence within the discourse level; train the students in the effective use of verÃ bal and non-verbal symbols towards ethical speech communication; and develop in the students writing skills in their respective discipline. LikeÃ wise, these teaching methods will help them teach the students how to reflect on the totality of the human experience; formulate for themselves a human perspective that integrates all branches of knowledge in a proÃ found understanding of the individual as well as society; and contribute to the understanding of the beautiful and the good in human experience. They rarely preferred to use Jigsaw Method, Report-Back Session, Team Project Method, lab work, Worksheets/Surveys, Index Card Exercise, Guided Imagery and In-class Demonstration as teaching methods. The faculty teaching MAPE and Professional Education are committed to the production of quality teachers who could be at par with the other proÃ fessionals through a deliberate effort to improve instruction, research, and community extension. These efforts are reflected in their teaching methÃ od preferences. Simulation is an event or situation made to resemble real classroom situÃ ation as closely as possible. The faculty uses simulation most probably because it is an excellent venue for the education students to learn exÃ perientially since it provides opportunities for them to practice problem solving and psychomotor skills in a safe, controlled environment. In a simulation, students create connections mentally which is rarely, if ever, accomplished through conventional teaching techniques. ConseÃ quently, the learning has a greater impact, plus the new knowledge and skills are retained much longer. It works because the students become more engaged with the subject matter than through more conventional approaches to teaching (lecturing, debates, discussion, videos, etc. Thus, compared with these traditional methods, this method of teaching and evaluating learners is more realistic, enhances both acquisition and reÃ tention of knowledge, sharpens critical-thinking and psychomotor skills, and is more enjoyable. Simulation can be used to teach theory, assessment, technology and skills. The emphasis in simulation is often on the application and inteÃ gration of knowledge, skills, and critical thinking. Unlike a classroom setting or a paper-and-pencil test, simulation allows learners to function in an environment that is as close as possible to an actual teaching situaÃ tion and provides them an opportunity to think. The Team Project method is the appropriate pedagogy of choice of most faculty in the professional education courses, since it combines knowlÃ edge with practical experience and improve interpersonal and commuÃ nication skills which are essential to the knowledge growth and perforÃ mance of future educators. Furthermore, besides technical skills and knowledge, the MAPE and Professional education courses is required to give students opportunities to improve their interpersonal, collaborative and communication skills. It requires students to apply in practice perÃ sonal competencies and improve problem-solving skills such as explorÃ atory searching, critical thinking and decision making (Hawking et al. 2001). The method also provides students with experiential learning opÃ portunities to actively develop their knowledge and experience, as they cooperate in group projects. The discussion method is always a preferred teaching method since it involves the entire class in an extended interchange of ideas between the teacher and the students and among classmates. The members in the class may approach the discussion topic with many and varying points of view, however, the teacher focuses the discussion in the direction most conducive to effective and purposeful learning. In summary, the respondents from the College of Arts, Sciences and EdÃ ucation often preferred to use Lecture/Discussion Combination, in-class exercises and Class Discussion in teaching. Rarely, they preferred to use Jigsaw Method, Explanatory Discussion guest speaker, video tapes, ReÃ port-Back Session, Role Playing, Reflective Discussion, Debate, ILPE Method, Guided Imagery and Brain Writing. As a whole the faculty of Aquinas University as reflected by the data, often preferred Lecture/Discussion Combination, Team Project Method, lab work, in-class exercises, oral presentation, Brain storming, Class Discussion and In-class Demonstration. They rarely preferred JigÃ saw Method, guest speakers, Index Card Exercise, Debate, ILPE MethÃ od, Brain Writing and Socratic method. Lectures although combined with class discussion (4. 34) remain the core teaching method in most the colleges. Their role is best suited to proÃ viding an overview of the subject matter and stimulating interest in it, rather than disseminating facts. Since this is the most preferred teachÃ ing method, the faculty must remember that students would appreciate good quality lectures with clear objectives which could be placed in the course handbook, with the lecture summaries, clear overhead acetates or slides; a paced delivery; and appropriate handouts which would provide students with complex diagrams or difficult or critical text. The class discussion that follows could be used to clarify certain points in the lecÃ ture. Thus, lecture when combined with discussion widens the intellectuÃ al horizons of the student, making it possible for them to gradually move toward acquisition of self-discovery and self-understanding. It enables the instructor to correct error in literature and articles read by the student. Also, it affords opportunities for an instructor to explain a particularly equivocal ambiguous point of idea, or a complicated, difficult, abstract process or operation and resolves conflicting points of view and clarifies misunderstanding of different schools of thought. It could also enliven the learning situation by adding the voice, gesture and the personality of the instructor. The discussion that follows the lecture will promote interest by giving the students a share in the responsibility for the course and in search for knowledge. It compels the students to be active learners and motivates them by keeping the work within their intellectual bounds and by allying it with their aptitude. It enables the instructor to constantly appraise the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the issues under discussion. Discussion method is also a preferred teaching method since it sharpÃ ens the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas and concepts by forcing them to express them in their own words. This facilitates intellectual comprehension and applicaÃ tion of new knowledge to life-situations. It permits the students to chalÃ lenge statements with which they disagree or which they misunderstand, thereby facilitating the process of self-discovery and self-understanding and developing the sense of self-assertiveness. In addition, it develops in the students the skills essential to effective group discussion and verbal communication. The discussion method forces the students out of their classroom lethargy, so that every learner will react either in support or in opposition to the issue under discussion. In using this teaching method, each student learns to feel free to express his/her opinions, to argue with mutual respect and to defend his/her own stand in the light of logic and rationality. It also develops facility in oral expression, critical and creÃ ative thinking, and intellectual and imaginative problem-solving ability. Thus, lecture when combined with discussion sustains and strengthens most of the elements essential for productive learning. The provision of feedback and class participation heightens the learners motivation, facilitates the intellectual grasp of abstract concepts and the learning of problem-solving skills. The data also show that Brainstorming is an often preferred teachÃ ing method. Alex Osborn describes it as a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously by its membersÃ¢â¬ (http://www. moneyinstructor. com/lesson/brainstorming. asp. According to him in this process more ideas could be generated than in any normal disÃ cussion and that by producing more ideas, people had a better chance of finding useful ones: from quantity came quality. A key part of the process is to come up with wild or silly ideas because these in turn can spark off really useful ones. This finding of the study implies that brainstorming is often preferred as a group process so that the members of
Posted by Shelton Mcmillan at 7:21 PM